How a Laser Changed Our Lives and World?

It has just been 50 years since the first laser has been introduced to the world, by a legend Theodore Maimam in 1960. This first laser named as ruby laser was using a synthetic ruby as grain medium and has shaken the entire world and gave a new definition and understanding in us about the technologies. Since then there are many evolutions that came in laser improvements and with ever new inventions it has been intervening in military, industrial, cosmetic, research, medicine and many other sectors changing our lives. Today they have become the integral part of human life as they are used in sensors and many electronic devices which we use on a daily basis. Apart from the existing benefits and use cases that are in light from a laser, there are many companies as well as laboratories striving to find new possibilities and new applications of the laser that would facilitate the necessities we have in our lives. Few companies have been working towards creating weapons with this technology which might lead to war.

What’s New in a 2013 Laser World?

Every year there is a new application introduced to the public with the best example being the latest 100-INC laser TV that has been provided by LG Electronics in 2013. Than to call it TV it would be apt to call it as a projector that gives access to stream internet services from this big sized screen thus giving a feel of having own theatre at home.

The new set of applications is waiting to serve us using the new technology that has been worked out by Imran Mahboob who created laser with the use of sound waves than using the regular light waves. Though it might take several years for the applications to start working surely it is the new milestone achieved in the laser evolution process.

Another achievement is at Hasso Plattner Institute where researchers have found a way to make 3-D objects with the use of 2-D laser cutters. Something called as LaserOrigami has proved to be faster than the traditional 3-D fabrication applied on 3-D prototypes by simple bending.

Swedish researchers were able to release a promising robot, at the AASS Research Centre located at Orebro University, by name Gasbot that would work continuously. With the inbuilt system made of gas sensor, GPS and powerful lasers, it would be able to collect the data and then build the maps that should give the directions to do the investigation of the places that are likely to have leaking harmful methane which then will be passed on to the workers for further process.

If someone has to experience hallucination without using drugs then it could be possible very soon with the kind of laser Forest application invented by marshmallow Laser Feast from UK. You would admire whispering trees and enjoy listening to the great music that comes out from each tree in the forest, which typically is just a rod installed in the floor.

From the science fiction there came an idea where the military airplanes can shoot the rockets by themselves which might become true in 2014 with the testing of solid self defense laser system that is installed in combat airplanes. This invention is from the USAF and it will get into real firing tests.

Lasers can even manipulate climate by formatting clouds and provoking rain, creating seed clouds, smog as well as prevents floods etc. which will all help the world. Even the common man who is finding difficulty in organizing events can go ahead once they are let to use this for their necessities. All this can be achieved from pulses of light due to which ice can be formed or water can be condensed and so on. Professors like Dr Kasparian and Professor Wolf strongly believe that laser technology would definitely help control the weather.

Professor Gerald Buller was able to find a solution to get 3-D information when a low power laser beam is passed over the object and the result of this innovation is the stunning camera that can take 3-D photos up to 1 kilometer away. The superconducting nanowires would count the distance of one laser pulse that would return back from the object and this is where it has become quite famous and expected to work well underwater or air, like in airplanes, for scanning forest vegetation, for measuring the dimensions of oceans or lakes.

The next innovation that would come into light very fast in the market provided FDA approves is the laser that would help treat the sun damage which will eliminate the need of visiting a medical institution for healing any of the damages caused by the sun. They are so genuine that even would doctors would prescribe them.

With the numerous innovations that are coming up with laser technology it becomes truly difficult to undercover all of them or would take lots of time for a common man to go through the number of possibilities and features that this laser would give us.

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Basic Ohm’s Law Principle

The mathematical relationship among voltage, current and resistance explains more than you think of electricity and that’s thanks to Ohm’s Law. A guy named George Ohm released this formula in 1827 based on his trials with electricity. Resistance, current and voltage can all be identified through the formula which are essential for designing circuits. Whenever you plan to design a circuit, Ohm's law could be used to establish the correct voltage, resistance or current values. This allows to pick for example the right resistor for a particular situation. Ohm's law may for instance be used to figure out the required voltage in case the resistance and desired current inside of a circuit are known.

First let's take a look at the main factors we require to analyze a circuit. The steady motion of free electrons via the conductors of a electrical circuit is called a current (I), and it is described as "flow," similar to the flow of a liquid through a pipe.The pressure stimulating electrons in order to "flow" inside a circuit is termed voltage(V). Voltage is a specific measure of potential energy which is always relative between 2 points. The hydraulic comparison for voltage is pressure.Without reference to two distinct points, the definition of "voltage" has no significance. Free electrons usually move through conductors with some level of friction, or opposition to motion. This opposition to motion is more correctly named resistance (R).

In mathematical term, we are able to say that V = I x R defines Ohm’s Law. With V, I and R which represents voltage, current value and resistance respectively. The formula may be written as I = V / R and R = V / I depending on what value you need to get.

If you'd like to determine the amount of electrical current, divide voltage by resistance as described in this formulation, I = V / R. Current and voltage are directly proportional to each other whereas resistance is the contrary. If the amount of resistance is constant, a rise in voltage is going to have the same impact on current. At the same time, when the resistance in a circuit rise and then the voltage doesn't change, the current will certainly decrease.

So long as you have resistance and current, you can identify voltage easily using the the formula V = I x R. Regardless of what, provided that the current keeps constant, voltage will increase should the resistance increases.

The resistance present in a circuit can be calculated with R = V / I. The formulation suggests that with current remaining the same, there is higher resistance if the voltage is increased. Lowering resistance happens when electric current is intensifying and voltage is steady. It needs to be taking into consideration that most resistors possess a fixed resistance value, independent of voltage level or current. However semiconductors may have a varying resistance.

To conclude, electrical circuits may be dissected with regards to the relationship between its key elements - voltage, resistance and current.

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Cisco 2960-S vs Cisco 2960-X vs Cisco 2960-XR

As the New flagship Cisco 2960 series switch, the new widely successful Catalyst 2K switches with stackable Gigabit Ethernet access switches. So what's the difference between the Cisco 2960-S, Cisco 2960-XR and Cisco 2960-X Series Switches.

Best Way to compare Cisco 2960-S vs Cisco 2960-X

Cisco Catalyst 2960S series switch is very common switch in any environment that has Cisco devices. It also got the ability to do static routers which was a nice feature. While Cisco Catalyst 2960-X switches are the next generation of the world's most widely deployed access switches. The 2960-X provides up to 80 Gbps of stack bandwidth which is 2x more compared to the 2960-S. It is now also possible to stack up to 8 switches compared to the earlier maximum of 4. They are scalable, smart, simple, and secure and at the same time provide investment protection. These switches also provide Layer 3 routing capability, application-aware intelligence, and double the scale.

Cisco 2960-X vs Cisco 2960-XR
Dual-FRU power supply with integrated fan
Layer 3 features with IP Lite feature set
Configurable 8 queues per port (standalone)
48 Ether channel groups

The Cisco Catalyst 2960-XR Switch is a fixed-configuration, stackable (with module, not included) Gigabit Ethernet switch that provides enterprise-class features for high bandwidth applications and is designed for operational simplicity to lower total cost of ownership.

Key feature of Cisco 2960-XR:
1.The Cisco hardware routing architecture delivers extremely high-performance IP routing in the Cisco Catalyst 2960-XR IP-Lite Switches
2.It offers a number of redundancy and resiliency features to prevent outages and help ensure that the network remains available
3.Cisco Catalyst 2960-XR Switch offers intelligent traffic management that keeps everything flowing smoothly.
4.The Cisco Catalyst 2960-XR Switch offer a superior CLI for detailed configuration and administration.

Here are some notable differences between 2960-X and -XR compared to 2960-S.
Dual core CPU @ 600 MHz. 2960-S has single core
2960-XR has support for dual power supplies
256 MB of flash for -XR, 128 MB for -X. The S model has 64 MB
512 MB of DRAM compared to 256 for 2960-S
1k active VLANs compared to 255 for 2960-S
48 Etherchannel groups for -XR, 24 for -X and 6 for -S
4 MB of egress buffers instead of 2 MB
4 SPAN sessions instead of 2
32k MACs for -XR, 16k for -X and 8k for -S
24k unicast routes for -XR, 16 static routes for -X and -S

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Points take into account when acquiring a Document Management Platform

Nowadays, businesses are experiencing increasingly more the need for a Document Management System, mainly because of large quantity of information they handle and generate everyday. This is why having best suited and comprehensive DMS able to control it accordingly has become a key factor.

The requirement for an excellent Document Management computer software cannot be turned down. Yet, the approach of selecting and purchasing this platform isn't trivial and demands a serious analysis of each of the company's requirements. Moreover, even when getting this choice might take time, receiving an analysis concerning the company's necessities and also entails a comprehensive evaluation of the options attainable in the marketplace. These reasons are very important to avoid making an error.

Points to take into account when selecting Document Management Software offerings

Higher performance and more competitiveness, whilst saving cash and time, are sufficient reasons to get a an excellent Document Management solution. Various are the reasons to consider: security, usability, reliability, speed, etc. However, most importantly,

* Flexibleness and scalability are the important variables when making a purchasing conclusion. The Document Management software package to be purchased, is required to be capable to adjust itself on the organisation's needs and in addition, be flexible to fit future needs.

* Integration: The innovative Document Management platforms is required to be totally well suited with firm's present systems and integration with the current applications should be easy. Furthermore, it must be accessible from some other existing Software program applications, just like e mail or fax computer software and also the internet.

* Reduced training needs and user friendly: At first we need to notice that document management platforms of system is at the core of your business applications. It’s very common that employees are hesitant to adopt new technologies; and hence it may not supply all the value that it may in improving business procedures. This is therefore essential that the solution is simple to utilize and has an easy, attractive user interface. Apart from the software program retailers must have a coaching and consultant department to accompany the implementation of this mission.

* Storage potential: The platform must allow managing large amount of information to address the present and potential company requirements. Because of the expanding volume of data processed at present,

* Performance and production in document management are highly important: immediate access, quick search syndication to viewers, sensible document sorting, document scanning, etc.

* System backup: A risk-free and sound backup system. When going through information security and due to the large quantity of documents in use nowadays, security levels may never be large enough.

* Eventually, Technical Support: Support is always significant. Tech Support is truly an important need since the moment of acquisition. Availability of a really professional team that will give fast response and a working-around-the-clock service may be a significant element when making a decision between Document Management software programs out-there.

In conclusion, the work to select a suitable document management system for the organization should not be under-estimated, basically because of the quantity of elements to take into account. A correct selection will substantially assist in the business operations and will save organization funds.

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Automate FTP Transfers for Your Business with FTPGetter 3 Professional

If you have ever had to work with a basic FTP client, then you probably already know just how inefficient these programs can be. The typical FTP client does the job just fine if you only need to access your FTP server and transfer the occasional file a few times here and there. On the other hand, if you need to work directly with the contents of your FTP server on a regular basis, such a client hardly offers you the degree of flexibility and performance that you will need to get the job done in a timely fashion. Web-based FTP clients, provided for free by many hosting companies, are even less efficient, and they tend to be plagued by issues such as lack of responsiveness and reliability. Rather than manually updating, copying, downloading or synchronizing files by way of a basic FTP client, you can now automate FTP transfers to greatly speed up and simplify the process. FTPGetter 3 Professional is precisely the tool that you need for such a job, since it automates the process to ensure that your files are kept synchronized and current at all times between the local computer and the remote FTP or SFTP server.

FTPGetter 3 Professional will completely replace the traditional FTP client thanks to the fact that it provides all of the same functionality in addition to its automated synchronization features. It provides users with a familiar interface complete with features and navigation which are clear and easy to use for anyone who has used a regular FTP client before. The user-friendly controls are designed with the primary purpose of saving you time and minimizing the learning curve, and setting up an automated task for the first time simply couldn't be easier. When you start up the program for the first time, you will find that creating your first scheduled task takes only a matter of minutes.

As any entrepreneur knows, running a successful business and making a decent turnover is all about saving time without sacrificing the quality and reliability of the work involved. If you are using software solutions which are holding your business back, you are spending too much time which could be better spent working with other projects. FTPGetter 3 Professional can take hours off your daily routine, particularly if you spend a great deal of time working with files on multiple remote FTP servers. However, you don't just save time when you automate FTP transfers with this software - you'll get a better job done as well. Setting up automated scheduled tasks helps to negate the risk of human error by ensuring that your files are kept up-to-date and that nothing is left behind and forgotten about.

FTPGetter 3 Professional requires minimal user interaction, and thanks to the user-friendly interface, configuring scheduled tasks takes a matter of minutes, and then you can leave the program to do the hard work for you. The software also supports file masks, allowing you to set up scheduled tasks to only deal with files of a specific type. You can learn more about this powerful and innovative product at

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Benefits of Using RTD Sensors in Industrial Applications

RTDs (resistance temperature detectors) are one of the most common temperature sensor types used in industrial applications. Thermocouples and thermistors are popular temperature sensors as well, but RTD sensors are more accurate over a wide temperature range and more stable over time, making them an excellent choice for many applications.

An RTD sensor is essentially a resistor whose resistance value increases with temperature. Due to the predictable change in resistance of certain materials as temperature changes, it is possible to acquire highly accurate and consistent temperature measurements. Most RTD sensors have a response time between 0.5 to 5 seconds or more. RTD sensors can be constructed with pure platinum, nickel or copper. RTDs made with platinum are also known as PRTs (platinum resistance thermometer) and are the most frequently used given their higher temperature capabilities, stability and repeatability.

Specifications for RTD sensors include a base resistance value and a temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) value. Typical base resistance values can range from 10 to several thousands of Ohms (Ω) depending on material and type. The base resistance value indicates the nominal resistance of the sensor at 0°C (nickel and platinum) or 25°C (copper), with 100Ω being the most common.

The temperature coefficient of resistance does not affect a sensor's accuracy, but is important to the measuring device that calculates changes in temperature based on the base resistance. PRTs have two standards of TCRs; the European standard (IEC 751) requires a TCR of 0.00385Ω/Ω/°C; and the American standard requires a TCR of 0.00392Ω/Ω/°C. Assuming a TCR of 0.00385Ω/Ω/°C — meaning that for every degree change in temperature, the resistance increases by 0.385Ω — a 100Ω PRT's resistance will be 138.5Ω at 100°C. Likewise, assuming a TCR of 0.00392 Ω/Ω/°C will result in a resistance of 139.2Ω at 100°C. Thus, the measuring device used needs to be attuned to the TCR of an RTD sensor in order to accurately report changes in temperature, but the difference in TCR value has no impact on the sensor itself.

Thermocouples and thermistors are some of the other popular temperature sensors used in industrial applications. Thermocouples basically convert thermal energy into electrical energy, and use that to measure the temperature. While thermocouples measure the highest temperatures, respond quickly to temperature changes—within fractions of a second—and are easily obtainable at low cost, they are the least stable and repeatable, and suffer from poor accuracy. Thermistors are semiconductors that present a non-linear change in resistance as temperature changes; unlike an RTD, the resistance in a thermistor decreases as temperature increases. In comparison, thermistors feature high sensitivity to small temperature changes and become more stable with use, but are fragile, have a limited temperature range and currently lack standardization.

Between the three types of temperature sensors, RTD sensors are the most accurate and stable over time, and are resistant to contamination under 660°C. They also boast high repeatability, which means that RTDs can accurately measure identical temperatures even when exposed to repeated heating and cooling cycles with minimal discrepancies. This means that an RTD sensor will consistently measure 100°C after being put into an oven and subsequently a freezer multiple times. In contrast, a thermocouple is more likely to measure 100°C, then 98°C, then 103°C and so on when placed in the same situation. Since most applications do not require immediate responses (less than 0.5 to 5 seconds) to temperature changes, RTDs are an ideal solution for many industrial applications, which Network Technologies Inc (NTI) includes in its product line of ENVIROMUX® Enterprise Environment Monitoring Systems and Accessories.

NTI offers a line of platinum 100Ω RTD sensors that can be used in conjunction with one of three available transmitters to accurately monitor temperatures in many industrial applications. The temperature ranges of the available RTDs are: -67 to 240°F (-55 to 115°C), accurate to within ±0.27°F (±0.15°C); 35°F to 140°F (2°C to 60°C), accurate to within ±0.6°F (±0.33°C); and -30°F to 230°F (-34°C to 110°C), accurate to within ±0.6°F (±0.33°C). Rugged, waterproof RTD sensors are available for harsh environments. Some of the common installations for the RTD sensors include: plenum mounting, duct mounting, immersion wells, direct mounting onto sheet metal duct systems, remote temperature sensing for building automation systems and mechanical equipment room instrumentation.

Transmitters are necessary to convert the resistor values into temperature values, and can be connected to NTI's Enterprise Environment Monitoring Systems for a variety of alert and logging functions. The ENVIROMUX-RTDT-x 100Ω Platinum RTD Transmitter is available in two ranges, -20 to 140°F (-28 to 60°C) and 30 to 240°F (-1 to 115°C), and is accurate to within ±0.8°F (±0.45°C). Both units support 2-wire connections and can be calibrated for higher accuracy. With a wider temperature range of -328 to 1562°F (-200 to 850°C), the ENVIROMUX-RTDT-1562 High-Accuracy Platinum RTD Transmitter is accurate to within ±0.2°F (±0.1°C). It supports 2, 3, or 4-wire connections and is configurable to support 100Ω platinum, 120Ω nickel or 10Ω copper RTD sensors. With RS485 signal output, the transmitter boasts precise temperature measurements.

When combining the RTD sensors and transmitters with NTI's ENVIROMUX Enterprise Environment Monitoring Systems, companies not only can accurately monitor temperature, but they also can monitor a wide range of other environmental threats such as humidity, liquid water presence, power, intrusion and smoke, and receive alert notifications when a sensor goes out of a configurable threshold — an ideal preventive measure for many industrial applications.

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What Is Application Software And How Is It Used

Many people wonder what is application software. It is designed to help computer users to do certain tasks. It is sometimes referred to as an app. Some of its examples include programs made for accounting, graphics, office suites and media players. Many of these programs are concerned with documents. They are sometimes bundled with a computer or they are made separately.

In recent years apps have also been developed for mobile phones. Application software is different from middle-ware and system software which are used to integrate and manage the capabilities of the computer. They do not help in the performance of processes that benefit the user directly. Instead they serve the applications which then serve the computer user.

To understand this concept well we can use an example of a shopping mall. It does not provide the merchandise that customers need. Instead it provides space for retailers who then serve clients. Apps use the power of the platform that they are run on. Some are capable of running on different platforms. There are different categories of applications. They can be divided into two, vertical and horizontal applications. Horizontal ones are very popular with companies or departments while vertical applications are made for specific businesses or divisions in a firm. There are several different types of applications.

One is a suite which is made up of several applications bundled together. Usually such programs serve functions that are related and they share similar interfaces and features. They are also able to interact. A good example is Microsoft office which consists of a spreadsheet, a word processor and a database program among others.

Another type is enterprise programs. This is made to meet specific needs in an organization. Good examples include customer relationship management, financial systems as well as programs designed for managing supply chains. Applications for enterprise infrastructure are another type that provides the capabilities necessary to support enterprise systems. Email servers, databases and network management systems are good examples of this.

Information worker applications are used by users to create and manage information for projects in a department. Good examples are documentation tools, analytical, resource management and time management. Content access applications are designed to help in accessing content without having to edit it. They are used to meet needs of people who want to consume digital published content and entertainment. Examples are web browsers and media players.

Educational applications are adapted for use by educators and students. They are used to give evaluations and track progress though collaborative and material capabilities. Another type of app is simulation software which is used to simulate abstract or physical systems for training, entertainment or research purposes. Media development applications are designed to generate electronic and print media in an educational setting or for commercial purposes. Digital animation and HTML editors are good examples of this. Applications for product engineering are made to develop software as well as hardware components. They include computer aided design and computer aided engineering among others.

In case you are not sure what is application software it can also be classified according to the platforms it runs on. These include particular operating systems such as Windows and Linux. It can also be categorized according to delivery networks. Examples are Web 2.0 applications and cloud computing.

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