Characteristics of Film Capacitors

Film capacitors are electrical capacitors with an insulating plastic film and generally called power film capacitors. Insulating plastic film is used as dielectric in film capacitors. You can find a wide variety of film capacitors in the market such as polymer film capacitors, plastic film capacitors, metallized polypropylene film capacitors, film dielectric capacitors etc. Film capacitors are used in many AC and DC microelectronics and electronic circuits like electrolytic capacitors. The electrodes of film capacitors may be metallized aluminium or zinc applied directly to the surface of plastic film. Both conductive layers are wound into a cylindrical shaped winding.

Polypropylene film capacitors have the lowest dielectric absorption which makes them suitable such as VCO timing, sample-and-hold applications and audio circuits. These kinds of capacitors are widely used for EMI suppression. Polypropylene film capacitors are also used as CRT-Scan deflection circuits and in IGBT applications. Polyester film capacitor is another type in this category. Thermoplastic polymer material is used to make dielectric. These capacitors come in two forms; metallized winding and stacked versions. These capacitors are famous with name of PET due to polyethylene terephthalate material. These are cheap in cost and have high capacitance values. These capacitors are mainly used in DC applications and maximum temperature rating is 125 degree celsius.

Polyethylene Naphthalate Film Capacitors are another type of metallized film capacitors and widely used for high temperature applications. Dielectric used in these types of film capacitors is made of thermoplastic biaxial polymer material polyethylene naphthalene and these are also known as PEN. These are similar to PET in capacitance, temperature and frequency dependence. PEN capacitors are mainly used for non-critical filtering, coupling and decoupling in electronic circuits, when the temperature dependencies do not matter.

Polyphenylene sulfide film capacitors are film capacitors with dielectric made of the thermoplastic, organic, and partially crystalline polymer material Poly Phenylene Sulfide and that’s why these capacitors are also called as PPS, trade name Torelina. They are only produced as metallized types.

The temperature dependence of the capacitance of PPS film capacitors over the entire temperature range is very small (± 1.5%) compared with other film capacitors. Also the frequency dependence in the range from 100 Hz to 100 kHz of the capacitance of the PPS film capacitors is ± 0.5%, very low compared with other film capacitors. The dissipation factor of PPS film capacitors is quite small, and the temperature and frequency dependence of the dissipation factor over a wide range is very stable. Only at temperatures above 100 °C does the dissipation factor increase to larger values. The dielectric absorption performance is excellent, behind only PTFE and PS dielectric capacitors. Polyphenylene sulfide film capacitors are well-suited for applications in frequency-determining circuits and for high-temperature applications. Because of their good electrical properties, PPS film capacitors are an ideal replacement for polycarbonate film capacitors.

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DLNA Server and Media Organizer Software – The Digital Age is Here

A DLNA server and media organizer software will allow you to enjoy your movies, music and photos on modern devices in your home. Most modern devices, such as TVs, BluRay players, audio-visual receivers, games consoles (PS3 and XBox360) and dedicated media players support DLNA. What is DLNA? DLNA is a standard that enables sharing media content between compatible devices and it is used by millions of people around the world.

We are slowly, but surely moving towards completely digital media. This means that old disks are being replaced by files which are easier to backup, easier to move around, do not break, do not age and do not collect dust. However, where you previously knew that your CD or DVD would play on all players you'd insert it into, media files are very different. Even with files in most common formats such as MPEG2 or AVI, it's not guaranteed that they'll play on devices that support these formats, because a format is essentially a container and the real data is encoded in streams. These streams can contain video, audio and image information and the actual encoding of the streams determines whether the file will play on the device or not. Luckily, with smart DLNA servers, this is not an issue, because such software will detect what the file's streams are and will match that information against what your devices support. If it sees that the device cannot play the file, then this file w
ill be automatically transcoded on-the-fly, so that it can be played. This happens in real-time and without any intervention from you. All you have to do is select your media file on your TV or other DLNA device and start playback.

Another feature that a good media organizer and DLNA server should have is the actual organizing function. This means you must be able to organize media in playlists that make sense to you. You don't want to be stuck with some predefined lists that limit your freedom of browsing your media. It's your media, it's your device and you must be able to see it in a way that you want. It also helps if the software can automatically catalogue files for you based on metadata and if it can detect new files and add them to the media library from your disk as they appear there. This lets you set-and-forget the software and concentrate on more important things, such as enjoying your media files with your family and friends.

Good software does not have to be big or slow. Good software is optimized to utilize your computer's full potential when needed and then silently sit in the background when it's not required. The last thing you want is for your media server to eat up all the CPU resources of your PC, making your computer and your media browsing experience slow and cumbersome.

If you have children, then it's very important to have parental controls, so that you could limit contents that they can access on their tablets, smart phones or TVs in their bedrooms. A media organizer and DLNA server should allow you to limit files and folders that will be shown on particular devices; so that your kids are protected from material they should not see or hear.

You may wonder whether such a solution exists? Yes, it does. It's called KooRaRoo Media and it's the next generation media organizer and DLNA server available with a 30-day free trial. See how you can enjoy your media with a completely automated and smart solution that is KooRaRoo Media!

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Virtual Reality with The Durovis Dive

Virtual Reality with the Durovis Dive

For technophiles who love to get their hands on the latest gadgets, Durovis Dive is appealing. This virtual reality headset not only provides users with a 3D view of another world, but it does it all by relying on their smartphones.

The Dive isn't nearly as well-known as Oculus Rift, the gaming and virtual reality headset that was purchased by Facebook, but the German project is quickly making a name for itself in the VR world.

Ready to Dive...

The device itself is quite simple. Insert your smartphone into the Durovis Dive, launch the app and adjust the lenses for a 3D experience so realistic that you won't believe you're in virtual reality. The design allows for users to still view their actual surroundings.

Developing and Games for Dive

Developers must create games specifically designed to work with the launcher. There are already a number of games available, including the following:

• Dive City Rollercoaster

• Shadowgun VR

• Cardboard Catapult

• Go Show

There are many more games, some by the Dive team and others by third-party developers. There are also apps that allow for movie watching and screen sharing. One app even allows you to feel like RoboCop! You can download these games and other apps from the Google Play Store.

The success of this device is dependent upon consumers getting on board. In order for this product to become a major success and be on the same platform as the Oculus Rift Dive will have to provide enough interesting apps and games to keep up with exciting titles to beat out the competition.

Mobile Device Compatibility

A few issues with a device like this is fragmentation. The more devices that are compatible with the hardware, the more likely some devices will have incompatibilities with the software. It's a common issue with Android phones, which range in quality across the board. While all iPhones meet the form factor requirement, less software is currently available.

Of course, this won't work with any old phone, will it? There are some limitations, including size. Each phone must have a compatible gyroscope, which means Nokia devices don't make the cut. While the website doesn't say what the maximize device size is, tablets/phones like the Note lineup are too large to work with Dive. The Durovis website lists several compatible devices.

Durovis Dive is already available in various countries for less than $100 per unit.

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Samsung tablet vs Apple ipad

The tablet world is booming with different products and offerings, and if you’re just now considering buying one of those incredible technological advances it could be pretty difficult to determine which one to choose. While you will find a million and one different options at any offered time, there are 2 or 3 genuine top of the line products which have demanded a lot of the attention from customers - the iPad and the Samsung line of tablets. Fighting it out in both the tablet world and also the smart phone world for the top spot, this heated competition has been nothing but a boost for consumers everywhere. As they look to incorporate increasingly more attributes and push technology further and further to win market share, we’re the real winners because we get the benefits of better tablets. Here’s a fast breakdown of two of the leading tablet manufacturer so that you can make the best decisions possible.

Samsung Tablet

One of many world’s most sophisticated producers of top of the range technology products, Samsung tablets - while fairly new to the market - have rapidly carved out a substantial part of the market. Running off of Google’s open source and amazingly well-known (in addition to powerful) Android operating system and mated to some of the best internal electrical parts available today, these machines are as fast and responsive as they are good to look at and utilize. You are able to tell that these machines have been designed to be the very best answer possible in the tablet space, and unlike the Ipad are available in several various sizes and configurations. Not as polished aesthetically as Apple products always are, these are nevertheless slick looking machines constructed from only the highest quality parts and components. App support is lagging behind Apple’s marketplace, but things should be able to pick-up considerably.


The indisputable king of the tablet world, there's nothing quite like the Apple ipad. The first of all commercially successful tablet, the iPad has enjoyed international success from the very first day it was launched, and continues to take advantage of that market share still these days. At this moment on the third generation of products, the iPad has favored slow evolutions instead of massive overhauls - the form factor is the same 10.1 inches and while the processors and memory modules have been completely beefed up a little bit the different between the first generation model and the current one is not that big. This really is not to imply that these products aren’t worth owning - if you are searching for the right tablet solution then millions and millions of individuals would inform you that no one does it like Apple. Providing models in variable hard drive sizes along with WiFi and cellular connectivity options, you’ll have the ability to appreciate all of the features of the iPad no matter where you are. Coming in having a significantly steep cost than nearly any other machine as well as having a locked down and closed operating system, they are really the only blemishes on this particular product. Apple has been recognized for a long time now as the leader in high-end technology products, and also the iPad shows that it doesn’t look like much is likely to change.

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Cost-Effective Video Matrix Switch Installations

Matrix switches, sometimes called crosspoint switches or crossbar switches, are a special category of switches that allow many different inputs to be routed independently to any of a number of outputs. Each input can go to one output or be split to multiple outputs simultaneously.

Video matrix switches, as the name implies, switch video signals between several sources (such as cameras, computers, DVD players, and cable boxes) and displays (monitors, TVs, or projectors). This type of switch is in use almost anywhere multiple video feeds are shown – auditoriums, trade shows, military command centers, airport terminals, sports bars, security surveillance control rooms, etc.

There are many different video signal formats – composite video, S-video, YPbPr component video, VGA, etc. – that are not directly compatible with each other. While there are some very expensive matrix switches on the market today that use proprietary modules to translate between these different formats, most customer applications use only a single format and do not require this added complexity and cost. A well-designed, inexpensive matrix switch that supports multiple video formats, but will not convert them is a cost-effective yet versatile solution for switching inputs and outputs with the same video format.

For more extensive installations requiring a large number of inputs and outputs, keeping all of the sources and displays in close proximity to the switch becomes less practical. The most common and cost-efficient method of long distance video transmission is over twisted pair cable, such as CAT5. In this configuration a specialized video extender is connected to each video source, which transmits the video (and optionally audio and other signals) up to 1000’ away. Likewise, a mating receiver is connected at every display device to reconvert the signal back into a standard format. Using a compatible video matrix switch in between, the components of the system can be spread out and tailored to the installation site.

There are several advantages for using a switch with CAT5 cable over coaxial cable, like RG-6: the cable itself is less expensive; it is thinner and more flexible, which is easier to install; and the jacks for the modular RJ45 connectors can be more tightly spaced, reducing the necessary enclosure height for a given size matrix switch.

Network Technologies Inc’s newest VEEMUX® Audio/Video Matrix Switch, the SM-16Xn-C5AV-1000, is designed to route A/V signals distributed by NTI’s 600’ and 1000’ video extenders. The switch allows connections from any transmitter unit to any receiver unit of compatible type. When used with NTI’s latest EDID-capable extenders, it can also transfer plug-and-play information about the display device to the transmitter unit from a single receiver unit, a composite of multiple receiver units, or a default value table.

This latest addition to the VEEMUX family is available in matrix sizes of 16x16, 16x32, 16x48, and 16x64. Of the 16 inputs, one port (port 16) is also capable of using a direct VGA and stereo audio local connection, selectable via DIP switch. For every bank of 16 outputs, one port (ports 16, 32, 48, and 64) splits its signal to a local VGA and stereo audio output. As a result of an innovative design, each NTI switch uses the least amount of rack space for its matrix size compared to other switches in the industry, saving cost when rack space is at a premium. For example, NTI’s largest switch, the 16x64, is only 3RU, while the other switches on the market with the same number of inputs and outputs are as large as 16RU.

The SM-16Xn-C5AV-1000 matrix switch can be controlled from the front panel keypad, optional infrared remote control, RS232 port, 10/100 Ethernet port, or USB console port. The front panel has a backlit LCD, which allows the user to see switch connections, system settings, and a digital VU-meter for audio level (right and left channels) of the currently selected port. A built-in web server provides a graphical interface for port switching, settings, and DDC information accessible from any connected computer’s browser.

NTI’s VEEMUX SM-16Xn-C5AV-1000 is a cost-effective and space-saving video matrix switch that will prove to be invaluable in most installations requiring a large number of inputs and outputs with long distance video transmission.

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The Most Important Information You Should Know About The Spy Camera Pen

The spy pen camera is portable and extremely convenient to make use of. It can fit well in many situations and in little locations like in your shirt pocket. That way there is no need for you to carry a video camera around your neck with you while you are traveling. It barely occupies any space on you and is only a little bit thicker than other common ball point pen. This is precisely why it has actually gained much appeal amongst customers making use of this gadget.

This spy pencam can be utilized for video and audio recording and taking pictures. Individuals can now record numerous things that they want without any kind of onlookers it. They now have the alternative of upgrading their memory cards up to sixteen gigabytes with this pen camera. Nowadays, pen cameras are offered on the market which allows individuals to do both audio and video recording simultaneously.

There are a large selection of pencams that you can choose from according to your very own customized requirements. Some pen cameras also have the alternative of taking 3 pictures simultaneously to make sure that a very high crystal clear photo quality can be guaranteed for the individuals. The spy camera pen can also be made use of as an USB drive. You can move big amounts of data to and from your pc or laptop computer effortlessly. Individuals can choose from numerous memory cards to make use of from 4 gigabytes up to sixteen gigabytes depending on how much they need to make use of.

These spy pens have internal batteries that are rechargeable with an USB charger, so you can utilize them continuously without getting a brand-new battery. Their battery life is usually 1 hour long and it has the capacity of taping up to five hours of video with sixteen gigabytes of memory. Besides being a wonderful technological gizmo, pen cameras are also extremely advantageous for scouting purposes as they are tough to detect from a great distance. They can be put in places such as in a flower container covered with flowers in your very own home to keep a watch on your baby sitter or nanny without them discovering that they are being snooped on. They can also be made use of for security purposes and keep a keep an eye out at the possible unlawful activities. It is a fantastic spy device and the Central Bureau of Investigation detectives and officers can now take many benefits from this little, yet wonderful and helpful device.

If you want to read and find out more regarding exactly how detectives are starting to tape evidence with this little gizmo, after that you might want to look into our previous article which can give you with more details and information.

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DLNA – Consumer Challenges in the Connected Home

The Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA) provides a standard the purpose of which is to enable DLNA certified products to be compatible with each other in a home network environment, even if manufactured by different companies. The idea is great and it is supported by all major CE manufacturers, making it 'the standard of choice' when it comes to entertainment for the connected home. Its practical application by the manufacturers however will need to mature further if the basic challenges the consumer is facing are to be addressed correctly and if DLNA is to turn from a patchy working solution for the moderately tech-savvy into a widely understood and used facility.

Top challenges to be addressed:

Usage of DLNA Device Certification Logo

Currently DLNA certified devices sport the internationally recognized DLNA logo which supposedly informs the user that "this TV is the answer to all his questions". What it does not clearly say however is what class the device in question is. The logo bears little meaning with regards to the role the device plays in a home network - is it a server, player, renderer, printer etc. The logo provides no context of use and misleads the user into a possibly mismatched purchase. When the happy user attempts to play a file located on his home media server, through a mobile phone remote control app, he cannot find his new TV in the list of network devices. He has purchased a DLNA player device class and a renderer device class is required for the task he has in mind. The issue is slowly being addressed by manufacturers who are starting to offer TVs which are both a player and a renderer.

Fragmentation of Supported Codecs

The requirements for each device to support a minimal set of codecs ensure that most are able to play certain widely accepted file formats such as JPG, LCPM, MP3, MPEG2, etc. In reality however what results is a bit of a mess. The image and music file formats are relatively easy to play so let’s leave those aside. The hiccups start when the user, who has a multitude of file formats stored on his server, attempts to play all of those on his new TV. He quickly discovers that the device supports only about half of them. The second half is not supported by the TV but little did the user know of that in advance. He can, however, see all his files in the displayed list, a confusion which does not do much for the user’s flawless experience with DLNA. Some media servers attempt to transcode some formats but this approach is far from an ideal solution.

An interesting example of another codec issue is a certain make of TV’s which stops dead when trying to play a file with actual parameters different from those in the accompanying meta file. The TV in question gets so confused when it receives the file from the server that it is neither able to play the video with the original parameters, nor with the fall-back ones in the meta file - which are actually meant to assist playback.

Another identified problem is the ‘preference’ which exists with regards to file source. Our unsuspecting user having just purchased a brand new DLNA certified TV, and armed with the knowledge that it supports for example AVI files (as he’s seen stated on the packaging) is ready to test his new toy and tries to launch a file from his home media server. He is however confronted with the unexpected fact that AVI files can only be played via the USB port of the TV.

Android 3GP Format

This format taken in relation to the Android device makes a lot of sense because of good compression etc. Viewed however from the perspective of media sharing it has been causing serious problems due to it not being supported by DLNA devices. Yes, we’re talking Android, the platform with the most serious market penetration, and how pleased would you be to discover that video files shot with your Android phone can not be shared in your home network? Android is starting to address this issue with many new devices coming on the market able to record in MP4.

What issues have you encountered when trying to use DLNA in your life and home? Share with us in a comment below this article. Also stay with us for more musings on the connected home, its challenges and future development.

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